Rahma Cancer Patient Care Society

TYPES OF CANCER

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form. For example, lung cancer starts in cells of the lung, and brain cancer starts in cells of the brain.

Here are some of the cancer types:

  1. Adrenal Cancer


Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal gland. There are two adrenal glands. The adrenal glands are small and shaped like a triangle. One adrenal gland sits on top of each kidney. Each adrenal gland has two parts.

  1. Anal Cancer

Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. Being infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk of
developing anal cancer. Signs of anal cancer include bleeding from the anus or rectum or a lump near the anus.

  1. Bile Duct Cancer


Perihilar (also called hilar) bile duct cancers. These cancers develop at the hilum, where the left and right hepatic ducts have joined and are just leaving the liver. These are also called Klatskin tumors. They are the most common type of bile duct cancer, accounting for more than half of all bile duct cancers.

  1. Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that begins in your bladder — a balloon-shaped organ in your pelvic area that stores urine. Bladder cancer begins most often in the cells that line the inside of the bladder.

  1. Bone Cancer


Bone cancer can be primary bone cancer or secondary bone cancer. Primary bone cancer starts in the bone; the cancer initially forms in the cells of the bone, while secondary cancer starts elsewhere in the body and spreads to the bone.

  1. Brain/CNS Tumors


A central nervous system (CNS) tumor begins when healthy cells in the brain or the spinal cord change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body.

  1. Breast Cancer


Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumor is a group of cancer cells that can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. The disease occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get it, too.

  1. Cancer of Unknown Primary


Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the body but the place the cancer began is not known. The signs and symptoms of CUP are different, depending on where the cancer has spread in the body.

  1. Castleman Disease


Castleman disease (CD) is a rare disease of lymph nodes and related tissues. It is also known as Castleman’s disease, giant lymph node hyperplasia, and angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia (AFH). It was first described by Dr. Benjamin Castleman in the 1950s.

CD is not cancer. Instead, it is called a lymphoproliferative disorder. This means there is an abnormal overgrowth of cells of the lymph system that is similar in many ways to lymphomas (cancers of lymph nodes).

Even though CD is not officially a cancer, one form of this disease (known as multicentric Castleman disease) acts very much like lymphoma. In fact, many people with this disease eventually develop lymphomas. And like lymphoma, CD is often treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. This is why it is included in the American Cancer Society’s cancer information. (For information about lymphoma, see our documents.

  1. Hodgkin Disease and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma


Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma) is a type of lymphoma, a cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are part of the immune system.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL, or sometimes just lymphoma) is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. Lymphocytes are in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues (such as the spleen and bone marrow).

  1. Cervical Cancer


Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix— the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.

  1. Colon/Rectum Cancer


Colorectal cancer (also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer, or bowel cancer) is the development of cancer in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

  1. Endometrial Cancer


Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ in women where fetal development occurs. Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus.

  1. Esophagus Cancer


Esophageal cancer is cancer that occurs in the esophagus — a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach. Your esophagus carries food you swallow to your stomach to be digested. Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus.

  1. Ewing Family Of Tumors


They are also known as extraskeletal Ewing sarcomas. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET): This rare childhood cancer also starts in bone or soft tissue and shares many features with Ewing sarcoma of bone and EOE. Peripheral PNETs that start in the chest wall are known as A skin tumors.

  1. Eye Cancer


Eye cancer is a general term used to describe many types of tumors that can start in various parts of the eye. It occurs when healthy cells in or around the eye change and grow uncontrollably, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be benign or cancerous. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.

  1. Gallbladder Cancer


Gallbladder cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the gallbladder. Being female can increase the risk of developing gallbladder cancer. Signs and symptoms of gallbladder cancer include jaundice, fever, and pain. Gallbladder cancer is difficult to detect (find) and diagnose early.

  1. Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors


A gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumor is a slow-growing tumor that forms in the neuroendocrine cells in the GI tract. The GI tract includes the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, appendix, and other organs. Most GI carcinoid tumors form in the rectum, small intestine, or appendix.

  1. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)


Gastrointestinal stromal tumor is a disease in which abnormal cells form in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic factors can increase the risk of having a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Signs of gastrointestinal stromal tumors include blood in the stool or vomit.

  1. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease


Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a term used for a group of pregnancy-related tumours. These tumours are rare, and they appear when cells in the womb start to proliferate uncontrollably.

  1. Hodgkin Disease


Hodgkin disease (Hodgkin lymphoma) is a type of lymphoma, a cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are part of the immune system.

  1. Kaposi Sarcoma


Kaposi's sarcoma is a tumor caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) or KS agent.

  1. Kidney Cancer


Kidney cancer is cancer that originates in the kidneys. Your kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They're located behind your abdominal organs, with one kidney on each side of your spine. In adults, the most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell carcinoma.

  1. Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer


Laryngeal Cancer is a disease in which cancer cells grow in the larynx. The larynx, also called the voice box, is a short passageway shaped like a triangle that lies just below the pharynx in the neck.

Hypopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells grow in the hypopharynx (the area where the larynx and esophagus meet). It first forms in the outer layer (epithelium) of the hypopharynx (last part of the pharynx), which is split into three areas.

  1. Leukemia


Leukemia is cancer of the body's blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system. Many types of leukemia exist. Some forms of leukemia are more common in children. Other forms of leukemia occur mostly in adults. Leukemia usually involves the white blood cells.

  1. Leukemia - Acute Lymphocytic


Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow — the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made. The word "acute" in acute lymphocytic leukemia comes from the fact that the disease progresses rapidly and creates immature blood cells, rather than mature ones.

  1. Leukemia - Acute Myeloid (AML)


Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells. The cancer grows from cells that would normally turn into white blood cells. Acute means the disease develops quickly and usually has an aggressive course.

  1. Leukemia - Chronic Lymphocytic (CLL)


A type of leukemia (blood cancer) that comes on quickly and is fast growing. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too many lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) in the blood and bone marrow. Also called acute lymphocytic leukemia and ALL

  1. Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid (CML)


Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children.

  1. Leukemia - Chronic Myelomonocytic (CMML)


Chronic myelomonocytic (MY-eh-loh-MAH-noh-SIH-tik) leukemia (CMML) is a type of cancer that starts in blood-forming cells of the bone marrow and invades the blood. Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control.

  1. Liver Cancer


Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer, is a cancer that originates in the liver. Liver tumors are discovered on medical imaging equipment (often by accident) or present themselves symptomatically as an abdominal mass, abdominal pain, yellow skin, nausea or liver dysfunction.

  1. Lung Cancer


Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body.

  1. Lymphoma


Lymphoma is a group of blood cell tumors that develop from lymphatic cells. The name often refers to just the cancerous ones rather than all such tumors. Signs and symptoms may include enlarged lymph nodes, fever, drenching sweats, unintended weight loss, itching, and feeling tired.

  1. Lymphoma of the Skin


Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) CTCL is a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects the skin. The 2 most common types are called mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. Mycosis fungoides is a slow growing (low grade) type of CTCL.

  1. Malignant Mesothelioma


Malignant mesothelioma (me-zoe-thee-lee-O-muh) is a type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue that covers the majority of your internal organs (mesothelium). Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer.

  1. Multiple Myeloma


Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells.

  1. Myelodysplastic Syndrome


Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells. In a healthy person, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time. Enlarge. Anatomy of the bone.

  1. Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer


Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Paranasal sinuses. "Paranasal" means near the nose. The paranasal sin uses are hollow, air-filled spaces in the bones around the nose.

  1. Nasopharyngeal Cancer


Nasopharyngeal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the nasopharynx. The nasopharynx is the upper part of the pharynx (throat) behind the nose.

  1. Neuroblastoma


Neuroblastoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in nerve tissue of the adrenal gland, neck, chest, or spinal cord.

  1. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL, or sometimes just lymphoma) is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body's immune system. Lymphocytes are in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues (such as the spleen and bone marrow).

  1. Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer


Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, is cancer that starts in the mouth (also called the oral cavity). Oropharyngeal cancer starts in the oropharynx, which is the part of the throat just behind the mouth. To understand these cancers, it helps to know the parts of the mouth and throat.

  1. Osteosarcoma


Osteosarcoma: A cancer of the bone that is most common in adolescents and young adults. Treatment involves surgery, usually followed by chemotherapy or radiation. The site of the tumor is the most important prognostic factor, because it determines whether the tumor can be surgically removed.

  1. Ovarian Cancer


Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. Women have two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries — each about the size of an almond — produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone

  1. Pancreatic Cancer


Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach and in front of the spine. The pancreas produces digestive juices and hormones that regulate blood sugar.

  1. Penile Cancer


Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis. Around 95% of penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.

  1. Pituitary Tumors


Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body. Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones.

  1. Prostate Cancer


Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in a man's prostate — a small walnut-shaped gland that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men.

  1. Retinoblastoma


Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina, the light-detecting tissue of the eye. It is the most common malignant cancer of the eye in children, and it is almost exclusively found in young children.

  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma


A rhabdomyosarcoma, commonly referred to as RMS, is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells are thought to arise from skeletal muscle progenitors. It can also be found attached to muscle tissue, wrapped around intestines, or in any anatomic location.

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer


Salivary gland cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the salivary glands. Being exposed to certain types of radiation may increase the risk of salivary cancer. Signs of salivary gland cancer include a lump or trouble swallowing.

  1. Sarcoma - Adult Soft Tissue Cancer


Adult soft tissue sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the soft tissues of the body. Having certain inherited disorders can increase the risk of adult soft tissue sarcoma. A sign of adult soft tissue sarcoma is a lump or swelling in soft tissue of the body.

  1. Skin Cancer


Skin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal skin cells. It occurs when unrepaired DNA damage to skin cells (most often caused by ultraviolet radiation from sunshine or tanning beds) triggers mutations, or genetic defects, that lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors.

  1. Skin Cancer - Basal and Squamous Cell


The two most common kinds of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, which are sometimes called non melanoma skin cancer. These cancers are carcinomas that begin in the cells that cover or line an organ.

  1. Skin Cancer – Melanoma


Melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer, develops in the cells (melanocytes) that produce melanin — the pigment that gives your skin its color. Melanoma can also form in your eyes and, rarely, in internal organs, such as your intestines.

  1. Skin Cancer - Merkel Cell


Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer that usually appears as a flesh-colored or bluish-red nodule, often on your face, head or neck. Merkel cell carcinoma is also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin.

  1. Small Intestine Cancer


The types of cancer found in the small intestine are adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lymphoma. This summary discusses adenocarcinoma and leiomyosarcoma (a type of sarcoma).

  1. Stomach Cancer


Stomach cancer is cancer that occurs in the stomach — the muscular sac located in the upper middle of your abdomen, just below your ribs. Your stomach receives and holds the food you eat and then helps to break down and digest it.

  1. Testicular Cancer


Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men 15-34 years of age. The two main types of testicular tumors are seminoma and nonseminoma. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly than seminomas. The most common sign of testicular cancer is a lump or swelling in the testicle.

  1. Thymus Cancer


Thymoma and thymic carcinoma are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form on the outside surface of the thymus. The thymus, a small organ that lies in the upper chest under the breastbone, is part of the lymph system. It makes white blood cells, called lymphocytes that protect the body against infections.

  1. Thyroid Cancer


Thyroid cancer is a disease that you get when abnormal cells begin to grow in your thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is shaped like a butterfly and is located in the front of your neck. It makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy and that help your body work normally.

  1. Uterine Sarcoma


Uterine sarcoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the muscles of the uterus or other tissues that support the uterus. Being exposed to x-rays can increase the risk of uterine sarcoma. Signs of uterine sarcoma include abnormal bleeding.

  1. Vulvar Cancer


Vulvar cancer is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the vulva. Having vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia or HPV infection can affect the risk of vulvar cancer. Signs of vulvar cancer include bleeding or itching.

  1. Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia


Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The cancer cells make large amounts of an abnormal protein (called a macroglobulin). Another name for WM is lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.

  1. Wilms Tumor


Wilms tumor (also called Wilms' tumor or nephroblastoma) is a type of cancer that starts in the kidneys. It is the most common type of kidney cancer in children.

 

Source: The American Cancer Society

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